By Henry Levy, Richard Eckhouse
Takes a special structures method of programming and structure of the VAX
utilizing the VAX as a close instance, the 1st half this e-book bargains a whole path in meeting language programming. the second one describes higher-level structures matters in laptop structure. Highlights comprise the VAX assembler and debugger, different glossy architectures resembling RISCs, multiprocessing and parallel computing, microprogramming, caches and translation buffers, and an appendix at the Berkeley UNIX assembler.
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Additional resources for Computer Programming and Architecture. The VAX
The debugger assumes that any parameter starting with a letter is a symbol and that any parameter starting with a number is a value. It also assumes that all values are in hexadecimal unless otherwise specified. Thus, the commands EXAMINE ABC EXAMINE 91FC display the contents of the longwords at locations ABC and 000091 FC, respectively. Note that in the second case, while VAX addresses are 32 bits (8 hexadecimal digits), the debugger simply appends zeros to the highorder part of the address. To display the contents of a location whose hexadecimal address begins with one of the characters A through F, you must append a leading zero to tell the debugger that this is a value, not a symbol.
The ASCII character set includes both uppercase and lowercase alphanumeric characters, the numerics (0 through 9), punctuation marks, and special control characters. 3, was developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to allow the connection of computers and peripherals by different manufacturers. Therefore, all ASCII character-oriented peripherals, such Table 2-3 ASCII Character Encoding Hex Code ASCII Char Hex Code ASCII Char Hex Code ASCII Char Hex Code ASCII Char 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E OF 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A IB 1C ID IE IF NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F SP | " # $ % & ' ( ) 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F > * + ' - / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; < = > ?
LONG 5 causes the assembler to allocate a 32-bit longword of memory and initialize it with the value 5. The symbol A is given the value of the address of the longword. Using symbolic labels, the previous Add example could be coded as shown below: Address 200 204 208 400 Assembly Statement LONG 1765 A LONG 23 B LONG 152 C ADDL3 A,B,C The addresses shown to the left appear only for the sake of this example and are not part of the instructions coded by the programmer. The assembler does all the work of remembering addresses, thus providing the programmer with a symbolic way to reference them.