By Ronald Rubin

An huge, immense quantity of analysis attempt has been directed towards elucidating the mechanism in which components are extruded from cells; and reports were written and symposia held with the intention to systematize the plethora of facts made to be had. even though, the ways hired to review the secretory technique were so varied that it truly is tough, if now not most unlikely, for one person or perhaps a crew of people to maintain abreast of all facets of the sphere and to investigate them seriously. therefore I undertook the writing of this quantity with loads of trepidation. In trying to find a few start line, I evidently regarded as my fundamental concentration the position of calcium within the secretory approach, which has occupied my study pursuits for the previous thirteen years. yet considering rather a lot experimentation has been conducted in this and similar issues over the last decade or , I felt it used to be nonetheless essential to visualize this enterprise from substitute ap­ proaches: (1) a extra common one, which might conceal the topic of calcium and the secretory approach from a large viewpoint, yet in fact no longer in nice aspect, and (2) a extra particular one, limiting insurance to rigorously outlined limits yet with accomplished research of restricted issues. the ultimate path undertaken seems to be to lie someplace among those extremes.

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With the aid of the author (who was a graduate student at the time) and Siret Jaanus-who quickly mastered and perfected the Cholinergic Neurons, Chromaffin Cells, and Neurosecretory Cells 29 technique of adrenal perfusion-William Douglas set out to prove his theory (Douglas and Rubin, 1961, 1963). It was an exciting October day in 1960 in the Pharmacology Laboratory at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine when a cat adrenal gland was perfused, first with calcium-containing Locke's solution and then with calcium-free Locke's solution, and each time the gland was stimulated with acetylcholine.

Following the reports of these studies, paper after paper began to appear in the scientific literature which implicated calcium in the secretion of a variety of different substances, which include norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves, insulin from the pancreatic cells, histamine and serotonin (5-HT) from mast cells and platelets, trophic hormones from the adenohypophysis, protein release from leukocytes and exocrine pancreas, hydrochloric acid and gastrin from the stomach, and other putative neurotransmitter substances such as y-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid.

Lanthanum. , 1971; Miledi, 1971). The ability of lanthanum to decrease the probability of release by 50 2 Action of Calcium on the Secretory Process depressing the inward calcium current responsible for triggering the secretory process is supported by Miledi's demonstration that lanthanum blocks the tetrodotoxin-insensitive calcium current in the presynaptic nerve terminal at the squid giant synapse (Miledi, 1971). , 1966; Blaustein and Goldman, 1968). However, it should be emphasized that lanthanum does not inhibit release by decreasing the size of the action potential, since in the presence of lanthanum nerve impulses continue to invade the nerve terminal but are unable to release transmitter (Miledi, 1971).

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