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In a general sense, these estimated ion transport numbers have been confirmed by experimental works [31, 32]. Unlike in bulk solutions, the ions are not able to move by the shortest route, but they have to find their way along the narrow and tortuous capillary pores. So the actual distance (e. g. from the concrete surface to the reinforcement) is much longer than the geometrical one. Moreover, the ions can be transported only in water-filled and interconnected pores. Therefore the velocity of migration (and diffusion) in concrete is governed by the pore volume and the pore geometry and distribution.

10] EN 197-1 :2000, “Cement – Part 1 : Composition, Specifications and Conformity for Common Cements”, European Committee for Standardization, 2000. [11] R. B. Polder, “Simulated de-icing salt exposure of blended cement concrete - chloride penetration”, Proc. 2nd International RILEM Workshop Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete, C. Andrade, J. ), PRO 19, RILEM Publications, 189–202, 2000. [8] 19 2 Transport Processes in Concrete Concrete can be penetrated, through its pores, by gases (e.

4 Setup for steadystate diffusion cell and example of typical results From this relationship the steady-state diffusion coefficient Dss can be calculated. This kind of test can be used to compare the characteristics of different concretes with regard to chloride diffusion. A practical complication may be that concrete with low porosity may require a very long time to reach a constant flux. Values found for the steady-state effective chloride diffusion coefficient may vary from 10 –14 to 10 –11 m2/s for concrete with various binders and w/c [18, 19].

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