By A. Ure, C. Davidson
This e-book is extremely urged for a broader clinical readership. it's going to not just locate its position at the bookshelf of analytical chemists and 'speciation researchers' yet may also function an exceptional resource of data for environmental scientists outdoors the specialized group.
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Extra info for Chemical Speciation in the Environment
5 Supercritical ﬂuid chromatography Supercritical ﬂuid chromatography (SFC) can be regarded as a hybrid of gas and liquid chromatography. The mobile phase is a supercritical ﬂuid; only carbon dioxide has been extensively used so far since the pressures required can be handled by HPLC pumps. At these pressures, in the temperature range 50–100°C and ﬂows of a fraction of 1 ml minϪ1, supercritical carbon dioxide has solvating characteristics between those of hexane and benzene. The detection method can be anything used in the other chromatographies; the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and MS may grow.
For isolation of alkyl lead compounds) or liquid chromatography (including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gel permeation chromatography). Determination of the isolated species is then achieved by means of an element-speciﬁc detector. 8 1–2 1–2 1–2 2–4 10–5000 Ͼ500 PbCO3 PbS M2ϩ, MS, MCO3 on clay minerals, MnIV oxides Metals in algae Data from Florence and Batley (1980) and Noller (1992). emission spectroscopy (ICPOES), mass spectrometry (MS) and electrochemical sensors (including anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and amperometric procedures).
The lipid-soluble fraction of copper and other metals has been extracted from natural waters using solvent mixtures such as n-hexane, 10% butanol and n-octanol and 20% butanol in hexane (Stiff, 1971; Florence, 1982). The liquid–liquid extraction efﬁciencies are possibly low, due to (1) charged complexes not being transferred between phases, and (2) the metal adsorbed on organic colloids being only partially extracted (particles tend to collect at phase interfaces). Extraction of polar organo-metallic species can be difﬁcult and not necessarily quantitative.