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An accurate but rather lengthy method for determining free carbon dioxide is given by PARKHOUSE271. H. 4 4·5' indicator. m. m. m. m. of CaC0 3 ). More accurate values can be estimated from determinations of pH, temperature, and bicarbonate alkalinity by the use of nomograms published by D Y E 2 7 3 . g. g. organic chloramino compounds) ; all of these can liberate iodine from potassium iodide in acid solution and can give a yellow coloration when treated with an acid solution of o-tolidine. These reactions form the basis of methods for the quantitative determination of free chlorine.

The pre­ cipitated benzidine sulphate is washed with a mixture of alcohol and ether to remove any excess of benzidine, dissolved in 1 % sodium borate and the benzidine so liberated allowed to react with sodium 1:2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate to give a red colour which is measured photometrically at 490 ιημ 259 . 260 BELCHER and his co-workers have found that 4-amino-4'chloro-diphenyl hydrochloride is more sensitive towards the sulphate ion than any other reagent. The precipitated sulphate can be titrated with standard alkali as in the case of benzidine sulphate.

Very grossly polluted samples decolorize the méthylène blue immediately, very bad samples in ^—several hours, and bad or unsatisfactory samples in 18 hours-2 days. The presence of nitrates tends to delay the decolorization time. After the 5 days incubation period, tests may be made for sulphide (with lead acetate paper) and for nitrate (with diphenylamine reagent on a spot plate). The test is a valuable one for determining the keeping quality of effluents and of polluted river waters. A river water failing the test within 5 days with formation of hydrogen sulphide is liable to cause odour nuisance, especially in warm weather.

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