By Robert Muggah
The militarization of refugees and internally displaced folks (IDPs), particularly in Africa, is inflicting starting to be alarm in the humanitarian and improvement groups. The deliberate and spontaneous arming of refugees and IDPs threatens entry to asylum in addition to safeguard. yet whereas the coverage debates rage over the way to care for armed refugees and the way to avoid their spill-over into neighbouring nations, unusually little study has been performed to provide an explanation for why displaced humans arm themselves or how militarization impacts the neighborhood and host populations. This publication strains the event of refugee and IDP militarization in 4 African international locations rising from or tormented by conflict: Guinea, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. It considers the consequences of such militarization on neighborhood, nationwide, and human defense, and displays at the responses of web hosting governments and humanitarian firms.
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Extra resources for No Refuge: The Crisis of Refugee Militarization in Africa
Loescher and Milner (2005b) argue that this deﬁnition is too arbitrary and narrow and does not adequately reﬂect the nature and scope of protracted refugee situations. While the features are admittedly arbitrary, the UNHCR estimates that some 6 million people are in a protracted refugee camp situation. That is, some twothirds of the world’s refugees are now in protracted refugee camp situations. 2 See, for example, UNHCR (1982, 1983, 1993, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2002) and UNSC (1998b, 1999b, 2000, 2001).
Recent ExCom conclusions have likewise called for concrete steps to deal with the problem of refugee militarization and the importance of adopting practical measures in camps themselves to improve security. For example, ExCom Conclusion 94 (c) (II) (UNHCR 2002), has referred explicitly to the need for measures to identify, separate, disarm and intern combatants during refugee emergencies. : para. 31 Partly in response to failures to prevent or deal appropriately with the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide of 1994, UNHCR introduced a ‘ladder of options’ ﬁve years later to identify, prepare for and respond to particular (militarized) situations as they arise.
Medium options’ included working with local law enforcement agencies, providing training and support to establish national law enforcement capacity, and deploying international civilian/police monitors with the consent of the host state. 32 16 The debate on small-arms control Despite their ubiquity in areas where 17 Conceptualizing the issues The ladder of options was institutionalized at headquarters and ﬁeld levels after the issuance of recommendations by a UNHCR standing committee in June 2000.