By Robert L. Strausberg

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Medina. Splice variant expression of CD44 in patients with breast and ovarian cancer. Oncol Rep 8(2001), 145-151. [14] M. Hori. J. Shimazaki. S. Inagawa, M. habashi and M. Hon. Alternatively spliced MDM2 transcripts in human breast cancer in relation to tumor necrosis and lymph node involvement. Pathol Int 50 (2000), 786-792. [15] D. V. Sionov and D. Ish-Shalom. CD44: structure, function, and association with the malignant process. Aih Cancer Res 71 (1997). 241-319. [16] G R. V. G. Jackson. B. Cornells.

Indicates parental and transfectant cell lines from the pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient but expressing the proteins and transcripts characteristic of melanoma (as discussed in [32. 33]). Average linkage clustering and a correlation coefficient similarity metric were used in this analysis. Modified from [33] interesting story, an epiphenomenal correlation (which still may identify a useful molecular marker), or statistical coincidence? The statistical robustness of association can be assessed in various ways, for example by using the bootstrap [37] to obtain approximate confidence limits on the estimated correlation coefficient and to test the null hypothesis that the true correlation is zero.

L. Caballero et al. / Alternative spliced transcripts as cancer markers some 22 have more than one splicing variant. The rate of alternative splicing in human genes already detected, however, seems to be considerably higher than in C. elegans where approximately 20% of all genes have at least 2 splicing variants. It is quite common to find human genes with dozens of splicing variants, including the neurexins, N-cadherins and potassium channels. Thus the current estimate of ~ 30,000 human genes may translate to hundreds of thousands of proteins.

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