By Claude Ake

Regardless of 3 many years of preoccupations with improvement in Africa, the economies of such a lot African countries are still-stagnating or regressing.

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Thus the aims of achieving a radical change in the patterns of production and consumption, social and economic structural transformation, and accelerated economic growth and development as well as the integration of the economies of the region, remained of critical importance. "10 But this claim was misleading, for APPER largely embraces the critical assumptions and the strategies of Accelerated Development while discarding those of the Lagos plan. In their struggle to implement the Lagos plan, African leaders had learned the futility of trying to determine the development agenda and trying to carry it out without the cooperation of the West.

24 These comparisons clearly strain beyond policy options to ideological leanings. The contrast between the IMF-World Bank approach and UNECA's Alternative Framework exacerbates the confusion of development agendas. UNECA is nowhere near as powerful in Africa as the World Bank or the IMF, but it is influential. It has the prestige of the UN body charged specifically with the development of Africa. African policy makers think highly of its technical mastery of the economic issues of development.

In 1986 the United Nations prepared its own African recovery program, the United Nations Program of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-90 (UNPAAERD). It is not clear why the UN had its own program, since it was very similar to APPER. UNPAAERD placed the same emphasis on agriculture and the same emphasis on policy reform of the IMF kind. 8 percent of the projected cost of APPER. 13 Both APPER and UNPAAERD emphasized Africa's responsibility for its plight and for finding a solution.

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