By Donald Ray Cressey

This is a publication approximately Edwin H. Sutherland's conception of range­ ential organization. I got my Ph. D. from Indiana college, the place I labored with Sutherland, and the quantity is made up largely of my writings on differential organization throughout the years 1952-1963. besides the fact that, the quantity is neither a festschrift nor a e-book of reprints. the unique fabrics have quite often been relatively seriously edited on the way to provide the quantity coherence and on the way to reduce repetition and redundancy. for instance, parts of 1 magazine article seem in Chapters I, IV and V; components of a bankruptcy released in a up to date publication seem in Chapters I, II and III; and bankruptcy IX consists of 2 inter-related articles, released 8 years aside. bankruptcy I has now not seemed in different places in its current shape, yet such a lot of it contains snippets culled from numerous of my articles and books and woven jointly in new shape. The publication is meant basically for non-American readers, who customarily are usually not as acquainted with Sutherland's idea (or with different sociological and social mental theories approximately delinquency, crime and corrections) as are american citizens. but a minimum of a nodding acquaintance with Sutherland's paintings is changing into more and more essential to an clever studying of the yankee literature in criminology.

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701; Clinard, "The Process of Urbanization and Criminal Behaviour", op. ; "Rural Criminal Offenders", op. , and "Criminological Theories of Violations of Wartime Regulations", op. ; Elliott, op. , p. 274; Daniel Glaser, "The Sociological Approach to Crime and Correction", Law and Contemporary Problems, 23 (Autumn, 1958), pp. 683-702; and Differential Association and Criminological Prediction: "Problems of Measurement", Social Problems, 8 (Summer, 1960) pp. 6-14; Glueck, op. ; Lane, op. ; Reckless, op.

1952, pp. 347348; Sheldon Glueck, "Theory and Fact in Criminology", British Journal ofDelinquency, 7 (October, 1956), pp. 92-109; Robert E. Lane, "Why Businessmen Violate the Law", Journal rifCriminal Law and Criminology, 44 (July-August, 1953); pp. 151-165; Walter C. Reckless, The Etiology rif Delinquent and Criminal Behaviour, New York: Social Science Council, 1943, p. 60; James F. , "Differential Association and Delinquency", Social Problems, 4 (January, 1957), pp. 233-239; and "Differential Association with Delinquent Friends and Delinquent Behaviour", Pacific Sociological Review, 1 (Spring, 1958), pp.

There is little or no attempt to make sense out of the statistical findings by showing that they are consistent or inconsistent with a theoretical scheme. Professor Reckless has advocated the use of this method under the name "actuarial approach": The actuarial approach assumes that individuals have a greater or lesser liability to be caught and reported as violators [of the criminal law] by virtue of the position they occupy in society as determined by their age, sex, race, nativity, occupational level and type of residence.

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