By Donald K. Yeomans

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**Extra info for Comets: A Chronological History of Observation, Science, Myth, and Folklore**

**Example text**

11. The gluon structure function for Q2 = 5 GeV2 /c2 and Q2 = 50 GeV2 /c2 . The greater the value of Q2 , the more soft gluons there are spectrum is shifted to lower x. The better the resolution, the more the total momentum is carried by soft gluons. 3 Coupling Constants Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the generally accepted theory of the strong interaction. Quarks carry the strong charge, colour. The interaction between the quarks is transmitted by gluons. Gluons themselves carry the strong charge and couple to each other.

Substituting E0 = −1 Ry and taking into account that, in the ground state, 1/r = 1/a0 and 1/r 2 = 2/a20 , one ﬁnds 5 ∆K = − α2 Ry. 10) ∆K is the contribution from the kinetic energy to the reduction of the ground state energy. 3 Zitterbewegung The electron cannot be localised with a greater accuracy than its Compton wavelength λ–e . The positrons, which accompany the electron in the solution of the Dirac equation, annihilate the electron for a moment and create it elsewhere. This leads to a smearing of the electron position, which is historically called “Zitterbewegung”.

1 Semiclassical The electron moves in the Coulomb ﬁeld of the proton with an average potential energy V¯ = −α¯ hc/¯ r . Here, r¯ is the radius of the classical orbit of the electron around the proton (actually, r¯ = 1/r −1 ). ¯ = p¯2 /2me , and The average kinetic energy of the electron is K 2 p ). The smearing p¯ is its average momentum (more exactly, of the position and momentum in the ground state of the atom 46 4 The Hydrogen Atom must obey the uncertainty relation. The uncertainty relation is an inequality.