By Peter T. Bobrowsky, Hans Rickman

Leading experts in a variety of disciplines have been first invited to a multidisciplinary workshop funded by way of ICSU at the subject to achieve a greater appreciation and standpoint almost about comet/asteroid affects as considered by way of assorted disciplines. This quantity offers an important hyperlink among quite a few disciplines and comet/asteroid impacts.

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2001; Heck et al. 2004). Lindstrom (2003) has equated this with a number of small impact craters, which were apparently produced at approximately the same time, in Fenno-scandia. The age estimates, however, of the individual impact structures are very poorly constrained. 1 Early Life Only a few mineral relicts from the first 500 Ma of Earth history are known to exist. The lunar record of that time indicates that the impact rate was one to two orders of magnitude higher than today and may have been dominated by a 20 to 200 Ma pulse of bombardment at ~4 Ga (Ryder 2002; Cohen et al.

Above 60 GPa, the residual waste heat is sufficient to cause whole-rock melting and, at higher pressures, vaporization (Melosh 1989). Impact melted lithologies occur as glass particles and bombs in crater ejecta (Engelhardt 1990), as dikes within the crater floor and walls, as glassy to crystalline pools and lenses within the breccia lenses of simple craters, or as coherent, central sheets lining the floor of complex structures (Fig. 2). The final composition of impact-melt rocks depends on the wholesale melting of a mix of target rocks, as opposed to partial melting relationships for endogenous igneous rocks.

The majority of known impact events recorded in the stratigraphic column were recognized initially through the occurrence of physical, not geochemical, evidence of impact. Recently, attention has focused on the Permian-Triassic boundary, with reports of extraterrestrial helium and argon, meteorites fragments and shocked quartz from Graphite Peak in Antarctica and the Sydney Basin in Australia (Becker et al. 2001; Basu et al. 2003; Retallack et al. 1998). Such discoveries have not been independently verified and evidence for potential impact-related materials at the Permian-Triassic boundary is not available from non-Gondwana sites.

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