By R. J. Prince (auth.), R. M. Mortier, S. T. Orszulik (eds.)

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The presence of the aromatic ring donates a fairly high degree of polarity to the molecule resulting in good solvating powers for most lubricant additives. 3 Applications The lower cost dialkyl benzenes are used in a wide variety of industrial and metalworking products. In particular, their sulphur-free chemistry has led to their extensive use in rolling and drawing oils for copper. The synthesised alkyl benzenes, even though optimised for their chemistry, generally exhibit poorer properties than PAOs.

G. (1990) Supply and demand oj lube oil: an update oJ the global perspective. AM-90-27 presented at the 1990 NPRA Annual Meeting. Bull, S. and Marmin, A. (1979) Lube oil manufacture by severe hydrotreatment PO 19. IOlh World Petroleum Congress, Bucharest. W. B. (1929) Chem. Metall. Eng. 36618-619. R. A. (1986) Lube facility makes high quality lube oil from low quality feed. Oil and Gas Journal, May 19,47-51. , Elkes, GJ. M. (1979) New dewaxing process proven in operations. Oil and Gas Journal, Jan 15,103-105.

Careful design and operation of the vacuum column should achieve the following desirable results: • • • • • Minimum overlap in boiling range between fractions (note, however, that some overlap is inevitable) Avoidance of entraining high molecular weight asphaltic components in the heaviest distillate fraction Ability to take a very heavy distillate fraction, rather than losing this material in the distillation residue Flexibility to run different crudes and still achieve design specifications for the properties of each lube fraction Minimum energy usage 19 BASE OILS FROM PETROLEUM Use of structured packings in recent years together with good design of the flash zone region of the column has helped to achieve these aims on modern base oil plants.

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