By David Chiszar, Charles W. Radcliffe, Kent M. Scudder, David Duvall (auth.), Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Robert M. Silverstein (eds.)

The first quantity during this sequence seemed in 1977, the second one in 1980. From those volumes and the current one, a little analysis traits in chemical communique could be perceived. within the 1977 quantity, reviews on thirteen animal taxa have been pronounced. within the current quantity, the quantity is 25. This taxonomie diversi­ fication of study because the first quantity of this sequence demon­ strates the big variety of ecological adaptions, even though no new normal rules of chemical communique have ernerged. extra­ extra, divergences in chemical comrnunication lower than the species point became extra obvious. more often than not, extra subtle observa­ tions and methods have resulted in higher knowledge of the com­ plexities in chemical communique. As such information has additionally constructed within the box of insect chemical communique, there was a corresponding bring up within the identity of the chemicals concerned. even though, within the vertebrates, no such correlation exists; within the current quantity, conclusive chemical identifications of semiochemicals are impressive by means of their paucity.

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The final study deals with the issue of the efficacy of airborne odorants in initiating increased tongue flicking. These studies are not a comprehensive treatise on tongue flicking; they do, however, demonstrate the power and importance of analyzing tongueflick behavior in studying the garter snake vomeronasal system. FILM ANALYSIS OF TONGUE FLICKING DURING TRAILING AND OPEN FIELD TESTING Garter snakes will accurately follow earthworm-extract trails SNAKE TONGUE FLICKING BEHAVIOR 47 in a 2 or 4 choice maze to receive earthworm-bit rewards (Kubie & Halpern, 1975; 1978).

1980, In defense of "kairomone" as a class of chemical releasing stimuli, J. Chem. , 6:719-725. , 1982, The evolution of alarrn pheromones, in: "Chemical Signals," D. M. , Plenurn, New York. In press. J. , 1979, The ophiophage defensive response in crotaline snakes: Extension to new taxa, J. Chem. , 5:141-151. , 1975, "Sociobiology," Belknap/Harvard University Press, Cambridge. , 1980, Access of urinary non-volatiles to the marnrnalian vomeronasal organ, Science, 207:781-783. Acknowledgrnents.

Plenum, New York. , 1979, Roles of the vomeronasal and olfactory systems in prey attack and feeding in adult garter snakes, Physiol. , 22:1183-1189. , Under Review, Laboratory observations of aggregative behavior of garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis: The roles of visual, olfactory and vomeronasal senses, J. Comp. Physio1. Psychol. , 1976, Evidence that materna! ventral skin substances promote suckling in infant rats, Physio1. , 17:131-136. , 1973, Endothermy, sma11 size, and the origin of mammalian reproduction, Amer.

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