By Robert F. Mueller, Surendra K. Saxena (auth.)

Chemical petrology is largely the actual chemistry of rocks and linked fluids, even though it additionally borrows seriously from such different sciences as mineralogy. when it comes to basics it truly is firmly grounded in chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. In its therapy of terrestrial environments it grades imperceptably into sedimentology, geochemistry, and geophysics and in extraterrestrial environments into cosmochemistry. it's some of the most very important branches of planetology and meteoritics. The harmony of technique of thermodynamics and kinetics to procedures in those various environments is under pressure during this publication via a number of examples which were selected to light up assorted features of the topic. therefore we've mentioned in a few intensity such difficulties because the genesis of layered uncomplicated complexes, calc-alkaline batholiths, chondri tic meteorites, and the surface-atmosphere interplay of the planet Venus simply because those are very important and since they're relatively strong illustrations of the chemical petrology strategy. significant awareness additionally has been dedicated to volcanic approaches. In our therapy of metamor­ phism particularly, an try out has been made to correlate and combine the substantial variety of contemporary experimental, theoretical, and box stories. even though, we've not tried a complete survey of all identified rock varieties or occurrences, nor did we assessment all of the different evaluations and conclusions at the origins of debatable rocks. as a substitute now we have selected to emphasize interpretations we regard as following such a lot without delay from the evidence.

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15 is a comparison of the theory with the experimental results. From this figure it is apparent that Na + behaves essentially as predicted but that Cl- is more highly concentrated in the interlayer than the theory predicts. This lack of agreement in the case of Clmay be due in part to the approximation i± = i't employed as explained by Bernstein. 15 Crystal-melt equilibria We now consider the equilibria established between crystals and a complex solution of molten oxides or silicates. Later on we shall consider numerous systems of this sort in the physical chemistry of natural magmas.

9, shows the observed distribution of manganese. 12 2 Equilibrium of mineral systems The influence of one element on the distribution of another was first studied in detail by Kretz (1959). A particularly fine illustration is represented by his study of the distribution of vanadium among coexisting biotites, hornblendes, and garnets. 12. 1 0 shows the orderly distribution for biotite and hornblende. 11) shows an apparent enormous scatter, and on the basis of vanadium alone one could be inclined to doubt that equilibrium was attained here.

11 V203 distribution between coexisting garnet and biotite. (After Kretz, 1959. 24 in garnet Effect ofCa concentration on the V20 3 distribution between biotite and garnet. (After Kretz, 1959. 12 The equilibrium of the average metamorphic mineral assemblage requires the simultaneous consideration of all the various types of reactions discussed thus far. As an illustration of such an equilibrium we again use the iron-formation assemblages, since they are of only moderate complexity. Kranck (1961) has found the following association in Quebec: ~ :§.

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