By Ashok Mulchandani and Omowunmi A. Sadik (Eds.)
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Extra info for Chemical and Biological Sensors for Environmental Monitoring
2+ 2 Summary This work demonstrates a method for chemical immobilization of a diarylthio carbazone unit onto a polystyrene matrix using the coupling of nitroformaldehyde P-naphthylhydrazone with diazotized aminopolystyrene followed by treatment with aqueous ammonium sulfide and oxidation. 005 M aqueous P b and H g . Materials of this type are potentially useful as chromogenic ligands in fiber optic sensors for detection of toxic heavy metals of environmental concern. ch003 2 + 2 + Acknowledgment We are indebted to the U .
13. I. B. Suprumovich, Preparation of Dinaphthylthiocarbazone and its Metal Salts, J. Gen. Chem. U. S. S. , 1938, 8, 839-843. 14. E . Bamberger, R. Padova, E . , 1926, 260-307. 15. D . M. Hubbard, E . W . Scott, Synthesis of Di-beta-naphthylthiocarbazone and Some of its Analogs, J. Am. Chem. , 1943, 65, 2390-2393. 16. L. S. Pupko, N . Berzina, P. S. Pel'kis, The Synthesis of Substituted Phenylhydrazones of Nitroformaldehyde, Zhur. Obshch. , 1 9 6 3 , 33, 2217-2220. 17. L. S. Pupko, P. S. Pel'kis, Synthesis and Investigation of the Properties of Unsymmetrical Derivatives of Thiocarbazone, Zhur.
3) The chromogenic indicator should be selective for particular metal ions to reduce chemical interference. (4) Both the ligand and its metal complexes must be stable in the environment where they are used. This objective thus requires the development of highly colored chromogenic ligands with selective heavy metal complexing abilities as well as methods for incorporating such ligands into optic sensors through suitably chosen immobilization procedures. Among the diverse immobilization methods, the use of chemical bonding of the chromogenic ligand onto a polystyrene matrix appears to be very attractive since polystyrene can be readily converted to aminopolystyrene (8,9,10) and then diazotized with nitrous acid (Figure 1).