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2 pH Scale The hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion concentrations are given in moles per liter at 25°C. 2 gives the pH scale. Note again the reciprocal relationship between [Hϩ] and [OHϪ]. Also, because the pH scale is based on negative logarithms, low pH values represent the highest Hϩ concentrations (and the lowest OHϪ concentrations, as K w specifies). 0000001 M, a value more easily represented as pH 7. 00000004 M Hϩ. 8 or less, a situation that may result in death. 4. At pH 7, [Hϩ] ϭ [OHϪ]; that is, there is no excess acidity or basicity.

4 atm. In effect, by imposing local order on the water molecules, solutes make it more difficult for water to assume its crystalline lattice (freeze) or escape into the atmosphere (boil or vaporize). Furthermore, when a solution (such as the 1 m solution discussed here) is separated from a volume of pure water by a semipermeable membrane, the solution draws water molecules across this barrier. The water molecules are moving from a region of higher effective concentration (pure H2O) to a region of lower effective concentration (the solution).

The pH optimum of an enzyme is one of its most important characteristics. Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme active in the gastric fluid. Trypsin is also a proteolytic enzyme, but it acts in the more alkaline milieu of the small intestine. Lysozyme digests the cell walls of bacteria; it is found in tears. 3 ● Buffers 51 Phosphate System The phosphate system serves to buffer the intracellular fluid of cells at physiological pH because pK 2 lies near this pH value. 4. Phosphate is an abundant anion in cells, both in inorganic form and as an important functional group on organic molecules that serve as metabolites or macromolecular precursors.

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