By S. Weigert

This learn is the 1st finished evaluation of battle in Angola to hide all 3 stages of the nation’s sleek historical past: the anti-colonial fight, the chilly battle part, and the post-Cold battle period. it's also the 1st to hide, intimately, the ultimate section of struggle in Angola, 1998-2002, culminating in Jonas Savimbi’s demise and the signing of the Luena Accord. writer Stephen L.Weigert bargains a arguable account of the method of guerrilla conflict hired by way of the Unita insurgency in addition to an overview of the function and importance of management in insurgency. He demanding situations the normal view of Jonas Savimbi as a “student of Mao Zedong” and demonstrates that his technique of guerrilla battle represented a extra advanced and nuanced model of extra impacts, particularly Colonel George Grivas of the Fifties Cyprus insurgency. additionally, this account additionally urges the reader to contemplate Savimbi’s “charisma” as a personality trait which blinded and distracted many from a extra sober overview of his political dispositions (reformer or progressive) and his skills as an army commander.

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The party’s leadership approved the formation of a “Revolutionary Commission,” whose members included Portuguese Army deserters. 48 Sympathetic North African states provided some of UPA’s initial military supplies. Tunisian contacts also brokered ties to the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), whose protracted guerrilla war against French colonial forces was about to lead to Algerian independence. Ahmed Ben Bella, a prominent FLN leader, and Frantz Fanon, unofficial ideologue of the Algerian struggle, encouraged UPA’s transition from an aspiring political party to an organized insurgency.

Shortly after returning to Angola from his year in exile, in mid-1968, he found UNITA divided into three loosely aligned groups of combatants led by Samuel Chiwale, Paulino Moises, and Samuel “Kafundanga” Chingungi. Savimbi’s return was not universally welcomed. Although he did not publicly identify his assailants, or the reason for their attack, Savimbi belatedly acknowledged that three shots were fired at him in September 1968, in an apparent assassination attempt. 35 In November 1968, UNITA commander Samuel Chyala and 38 Angola some 150 armed insurgents defected to FNLA guerrillas who recently had launched operations along the Angola-Zaire border.

H isto ry and Geography Modern nationalists had many heroic, albeit often tragic, historic figures whose struggles still lived in the memories of contemporary Angolans. The heroes and heroines of previous wars could be recalled to inspire and improve morale but they could also highlight key obstacles to effective insurrection. Like their political/military ancestors, all modern Angolan guerrilla leaders found that their initial appeals for support evoked a limited popular response. They led combatants drawn from a relatively narrow ethnically, linguistically, or geographically defined segment of the population at a time when the concept of a “nation-state” had not yet been carefully defined or thoroughly articulated in the minds of many Angolans.

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