By R. W. Haywood and W. A. Woods (Auth.)

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2) than t o the thermal efficiency. In spite of the fact that the upper limit t o ηκ is 100 % , the actual value for a n internal-combustion plant, whether turbine o r reciprocating, is always well below 100 % and, for reasons which will b e seen later, is usually of much the same order as the thermal efficiency of a Internal-Combustion Power Plant 51 cyclic plant. Fuel cells, however, have been made with a rational efficiency as high as 90 % at light current loading and about 50 % at useful current loadings.

Since the change in enthalpy of a perfect gas is directly proportional to its change in temperature, there is n o need in this case to draw a separate temperature-entropy diagram, for it will be similar to the enthalpy-enthropy diagram. The diagrams should again be studied with eqns. 2) in mind. 4. Expression for the Joule cycle efficiency The best way of evaluating the thermal efficiency of any gas-turbine cycle is to work in terms of the temperatures at the various points round the cycle. 1) n(y-D/v = const.

Work-producing steam circuit 28 Simple Power and Refrigerating Plants F r o m eqn. 6) and eqn. (Α. 14) of § Α. 12, the rational efficiency η κ of this work-producing steam circuit is seen to be given by fη ϊ _ Actual Wnet V'lR/STEAM CIRCUIT = — — IdealJ—— Wnet Actual Wnet = R R bi-bi ,~ . 8). Thus, from eqns. 8), the efficiency ratio will be given by ™ . Efficiency ratio Actual η € Υ Actual Wnet = R—R—. ——;—— Ideal η Κ Α ΚΝ b^-bi Hence, from eqns. 11). Efficiency ratio = ( η κ ) steam circuit. 12) Thus, if we want to know the value of the efficiency ratio of the actual plant, it is evidently simpler to obtain this by calculating directly the rational efficiency of the open-circuit work-producing plant within control surface S of Fig.

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