By George Sale, George Psalmanazar, Archibald Bower, George Shelvocke, John Campbell and John Swinton.

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The preservation and amplification of certain societal actions as cultural modes and traditions depends, in general, on the perceived utility and social matrix of prior actions and the opportunities presented by novel social or environmental situations. Like other cultures, those that emerged in Africa were flexible and responsive to change. The transition from hunting-gathering to pastoralism and farming, and subsequently the emergence of urban centers, complex political entities, from tribal chiefdoms to empires, constituted a sequence of developments chosen by certain communities as a means to overcome food insecurity.

1-23. A. (1998). Climatic change, Nile floods and civilization. UNESCO Nature and Resources 342: 34-40. A. (2000). Climate and cattle in North Africa. , and MacDonald, K. C. ), The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics, and Ethnography, University College London Press, London, pp. 61-86. Kinahan, J. (1996). A new archaeological perspective on nomadic pastoralist expansion in southwestern Africa. G. ), The Growth of Farming Communities in Africa from the Equator Southwards.

Since ‘before present’ is measured by convention relative to 1950, this implies an age of 3578 cal BP for that eruption. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Sea Surface Temperature Fluctuations Sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations in absolute terms are a contentious issue in palaeoceanography. A common tool for first-order assessment uses ratios of known warm (oligotrophic) versus cool (eutrophic) planktonic foraminiferal species, an approach that has been found to provide very similar results to more sophisticated statistical methods in the Eastern Mediterranean (cf.

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