By J. Mangala

Over the last decade, Africa’s middle of gravity in international politics has shifted from mere humanitarianism to a strategic view that posits the centrality of the continent as power and common assets provider, within the struggle opposed to terrorism and different defense threats, and within the globalization of tradition. along with those concerns, this shift is reflective of 2 defining dynamics. On one hand, political and financial reforms have contributed to the expansion of democracy, an development within the fiscal outlook, and the strengthening of nearby governance. nevertheless, the continued diffusion of world strength is surroundings the degree for a brand new foreign order within which Africa will more and more topic. This publication probes the significance and value of those advancements and their implications for Africa’s diplomacy.

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17 Specifically, he suggests that American foreign policy should be framed by ideas such as the promotion of human rights. The rationale is that such an approach would enable the United States to contribute to the solutions of some of the vexing problems in Africa and elsewhere in the world. -Africa relations. Realism erroneously assumes that the citizens of the United States have a convergence of “interests” that the American state pursues in its relations with the various African states. Such an approach fails to take cognizance of the fact that the United States is segmented into classes and other identities.

Ibid. 66. Ibid. 67. Vishantie Sewpaul, “The Global-Local Dialectic: Challenges for African Scholarship and Social Work in a Post-Colonial World,” The British Journal of Social Work 36, no. 3 (2006): 419. September 27, 2010 7:20 MAC-US/AFRICA Page-35 9780230102866_03_ch01 September 27, 2010 7:20 MAC-US/AFRICA Page-36 9780230102866_03_ch01 2 Britain and Africa in the Twenty-First Century Paul D. Williams Introduction Contemporary Africa contains huge variations across its many states: some states are relatively stable while others have endured protracted conflicts, some have rapidly expanding economies while others are in reverse gear, and some are stable democracies while others are among the most authoritarian on the planet.

Clearly, these changes were not designed to institute people-centered holistic democracy and bring about the required reconstitution of the state, its political economy, and the associated power relationships at various levels and sectors. 53 Against this background, various authoritarian American client regimes held multiparty elections: Mubarak (Egypt), Zenawi (Ethiopia), Kibaki (Kenya), Kigame (Rwanda), and Museveni (Uganda). However, in all these cases, the incumbent regime controlled the electoral process and ultimately the outcome of the presidential elections.

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