By Sareen S. Gropper, Jack L. Smith, Timothy P. Carr

Present, accomplished, and designed to maximise readability of crucial suggestions, longtime best-seller complicated meals AND HUMAN METABOLISM can provide its signature caliber content material in a student-friendly means. The seventh version maintains to set the normal during the authors' skill to obviously and competently clarify even the main complicated metabolic methods and ideas, whereas staying at an undergraduate point. It provides scholars a pretty good knowing of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of fats, protein, and carbohydrates; examines the constructions and services of water-soluble and fat-soluble supplementations -- together with their regulatory roles in metabolism; and gives info on nutrition and mineral meals resources, advised intakes, deficiency, and toxicity. With complicated food AND HUMAN METABOLISM, seventh version, scholars may be prepared to proceed their reports within the box of food.

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This electron flow is strongly exothermic, and the energy released is used in part for ATP synthesis, an endothermic process. Molecular oxygen is ultimately, but indirectly, the oxidizing agent in these reactions. The function of the electron transport chain is to couple the energy released by nutrient oxidation to the formation of ATP. The chain components are precisely positioned within the inner mitochondrial membrane, an important feature of the mitochondria, because it brings the oxidizable products released in the matrix into close proximity with molecular oxygen.

Most of the enzymes operating in the mitochondrion, however, are coded by nuclear DNA and synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the cytoplasm. They are then incorporated into existing mitochondria. All cells in the body, with the exception of the erythrocyte, possess mitochondria. The erythrocyte disposes of its mitochondria during the maturation process and 8 CHAPTER 1 Ě The Cell: A Microcosm of Life then must depend solely on the energy produced through anaerobic mechanisms, primarily glycolysis.

In unidirectional reactions, the same enzyme cannot catalyze in both directions. Instead, a different enzyme is required to catalyze the reverse direction of the reaction. Comparing glycolysis with gluconeogenesis allows us to see how unidirectional reactions may be reversed by introducing a different enzyme. Simultaneous reactions, catalyzed by various multienzyme systems or pathways, constitute cellular metabolism. Enzymes are compartmentalized within the cell and function in sequential chains.

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