By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics

Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, house reports Board, Board on Physics and Astronomy, arithmetic, and functions fee on actual Sciences, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, nationwide examine Council

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The greatest gap in current knowledge is at the smallest scales, and motivates the long-term goals of developing systems that can obtain spectra of terrestrial planets around nearby stars and image protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions. 1 arc sec of a star that is over a million times brighter. Since the nearest star-forming regions are about 150 pc away, the second goal requires a resolution of about 1-milliarc sec at 5 to 10 µm to image the inner parts of the disk and about 10-milliarc sec at 50 to 100 µm to image the outer parts.

As the sources of virtually all the visible light of galaxies, stars also provide direct means to make fundamental measurements of distance, age, and mass. An important problem is to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the age of the oldest stars and many measures of the age of the universe. * * Dark matter is also discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. Gamma-ray bursts are discussed in Chapter 5. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

Is Einstein's general theory of relativity correct in the strong-field limit characteristic of the innermost orbits around black holes? • How do black holes create relativistic jets of matter, and what is the composition of the jets? • How does matter behave near the event horizons of black holes? Recent Progress in Understanding the Behavior of Matter Under Extreme Conditions Equation of State of Neutron Stars Determining the equation of state of neutron star matter promises deeper understanding of nuclear physics and perhaps of more-exotic particle physics.

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