By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund

A background of India is a compact synthesis featuring the grand sweep of Indian heritage from antiquity to the current. It is still the definitive textual content at the state. This re-creation has been completely revised, containing new study, and an updated preface, index and dateline. The authors study the key political, monetary, social and cultural forces that have formed the historical past of the Indian subcontinent during this survey. This vintage textual content is an authoritative specified account which emphasises and analyses the stuctural development of Indian heritage.

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This transition was accompanied by constant fights. Many hymns report the quest for better land or better access to water: ‘When two opposing hosts contend in battle for seed and offspring, waters, kine or corn-land’ (VI, 25). Stealing cattle seems to have been a popular pastime in those days, because the term goshati (getting cattle) was synonymous with warfare. But such fights were probably not just an expression of an aggressive temperament, they may have reflected an increasing pressure on the land.

She travels perfectly the path of Order, nor fails to reach, as one who knows, the quarters. As conscious that her limbs are bright with bathing, she stands, as ‘twere, erect that we may see her. (V, 80) The expansion of Aryan settlements During the period in which the Rigveda attained its final form the Vedic population extended its settlements from the northwestern mountain passes through which they had descended all the way into the western part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. The Yamuna is mentioned twice in the earlier parts of the Rigveda but the Ganga only once in Book X which is supposed to be the latest book of the Rigveda.

This seems to have been a fight between two Vedic tribal confederations. King Sudasa, who belonged to the famous Bharatas, was victorious with the help of Indra, after his enemies had tried in vain to defeat him by opening embankments and causing an inundation. It is interesting that in this context seven forts of Sudasa’s enemies are 35 EARLY CIVILISATIONS OF THE NORTHWEST mentioned although the early Vedic hymns are otherwise silent about Vedic fortifications. At the most there were some fortified shelters for the cows (gomati-pur) because cattle was the most precious property of the Aryans.

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